The CNS stimulant modafinil is believed to be able to cure extreme daytime drowsiness. In 1998, the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) granted approval for the use of modafinil as a therapy for narcolepsy. Later, it received clearance for shift work sleep disorder in 2003, and then for obstructive sleep apnea in 2004.
Patients with narcolepsy reported feeling less tired and more attentive after using this smart drug, which was praised as a sleep medication revolution. Studies reveal that the provigil’s mechanism of action distinguishes it from other stimulants, particularly amphetamines. Additionally, it improves cognitive performance in those who are not sleep deprived.
As more people learned about the wakefulness-promoting properties of Modafinil, intake for its off-label usage increased. This medicine is used by people in demanding occupations including students, professionals, business owners, and entrepreneurs to boost or improve their brain function and productivity.
Modafinil has advantages like:
- Enhanced attention
- Experiencing energy for prolonged periods
- An enhanced sense of motivation
- Improved memory and recall
It is crucial to note that this drug only works as long as you continue to take it; it does not cure any of the illnesses listed above.
Although the precise mode of action of this wakefulness-promoting substance is unknown, it is anticipated that the medication raises dopamine levels in the brain. It also induces wakefulness and acts as a centrally-acting alpha-adrenergic agonist. Arousal levels rise as a result of their influence on the central adrenergic system, it is thought. The administration of Moda is likely to activate the sympathetic nervous system as well.
It is good knowledge that Modafinil is one of the nootropics with the lowest risk of adverse effects and the greatest potential for tolerability. When compared to typical psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine, the toxicological profile for Moda reveals that it has far fewer or even no negative effects at all. When compared to other stimulants, it is frequently well tolerated and has a very low risk of misuse among those who are not already using any illicit substances. In addition, there is very minimal potential for abuse among those who do not already engage in drug use.
Modafinil disease interactions:
There have been reports of this medicine interacting with several different drugs, leading to undesirable side effects. Additionally, it interacts with several underlying medical illnesses, such as cardiovascular problems, bipolar disorders, mental disorders, renal or hepatic diseases, hypertension, or any psychological condition.
CNS stimulant medicines have been demonstrated to elevate blood pressure, which means that the usage of these medications may be inappropriate for patients who already have severe hypertension.
When this medicine is given to individuals who already have high blood pressure or who suffer from any other type of cardiovascular problem, extreme caution is required. Changes in a patient’s blood pressure and heart rate should be monitored consistently while they are receiving therapy for any condition. The autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is significantly disrupted by modafinil, as seen by an increase in both heart rate and blood pressure.
In general, the liver substantially metabolizes CNS stimulants. Patients with compromised hepatic function may see a reduction in their plasma clearance and an extension of their half-life. Patients with moderate to severe liver illness should receive CNS stimulant therapy with caution, and the dose should be changed accordingly. When a patient exhibits signs of liver damage, such as jaundice, black urine, or discomfort in the upper quadrant, laboratory tests should be done as way, and therapy should be stopped.
Modafinil dosage should be halved in individuals with significant hepatic impairment compared to the regular recommended dosage.
The use of CNS stimulants can increase symptoms of mental disorder and behavior disruption as well as create psychotic or manic symptoms, suicidal ideation, violence, and suicidal actions. Patients with and without a history of mental problems have both reported experiencing psychiatric symptoms. When administering CNS stimulants to individuals who have a history of psychosis, depression, mania, or bipolar disease, extreme caution should be used.
Before starting medication, all patients should be checked for signs of bipolar disorder. They should also be regularly watched, especially when the treatment is starting and when the dose is changing. Suspension of therapy should be taken into consideration if any mental symptoms appear or worsen. Patients with pronounced agitation or anxiety should not use CNS stimulants.
If taken at a high dose or more than what is advised, modafinil may cause psychosis (psychotic symptoms) comparable to those caused by other stimulants like amphetamine. When administered to people who already have psychiatric illnesses, it might potentially cause dependence signs.
Bipolar disorder therapy is one of modafinil’s off-label use. In the treatment of hypersomnia, particularly in bipolar illness, modafinil may be a safe and effective substitute for traditional stimulants. As a result, it may be used as a complementary therapy for bipolar disorder. However, not being cautious with the dosage and failing to adequately monitor the underlying disease might cause patients to experience mania and aggravate the bipolar disorder symptoms.
Psychotic Disorders & Seizures:
In individuals who already have a psychotic condition, central nervous system (CNS) stimulants may make their symptoms of behavior disruption and mental disorder worse. Additionally, it has been suggested that modafinil elevates dopamine levels by weakly inhibiting dopamine absorption and by inhibiting GABA release, which potentiates psychosis.
Therapy with CNS stimulant medications may result in seizures due to general central nervous system stimulation. In individuals with a history of seizures or abnormal EEG, as well as extremely occasionally in patients with no prior history of seizures, these medications may reduce the threshold for convulsions.
Patients with moderate to severe liver illness should receive CNS stimulant therapy with caution, and the dose should be changed accordingly. Low rates of elevated serum aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase (1%) were linked to modafinil-related hepatotoxicity. In addition, despite its widespread usage, neither modafinil nor armodafinil has been linked to any instances of clinically obvious liver damage.
Those with left ventricular enlargement or prolapsed mitral valve who took modafinil reported chest aches, tachycardia, breathlessness, and transitory ischemic T-wave changes. It is suggested that modafinil not be used in individuals with a history of Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or ischemia Electrocardiogram abnormalities, rapid heartbeat, arrhythmia, or other clinically relevant indications of mitral valve prolapse in combination with the use of central nervous system (CNS) stimulants. This recommendation comes from the American Heart Association.
Since the effects of modafinil on patients who have already been diagnosed with cardiovascular disease as a result of other factors, such as hypertension and/or a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable angina, it is important to exercise extreme caution when administering the medication to these patients.
Even while the effects of stimulant use on the cardiovascular system are very mild in healthy individuals, with only slight increases in HR and BP, there is still cause for worry regarding the use of stimulants in patients who already have cardiovascular issues.
In individuals whose cardiovascular function is already impaired, the adrenergic stimulation that is generated by stimulants and medicines that have similar effects as stimulants may have a greater effect on autonomic control.
Patients who suffer from sleep apnea do not appear to experience a substantial shift in blood pressure when using modafinil unless the participants are under considerable mental and physical stress. In other words, if the patients are not participating in any activity that requires great mental attention or physical effort, then substantial variations in blood pressure will not be detected.
Patients who already had cardiovascular disease saw a rise in their resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting diastolic blood pressure when they took modafinil. It is also known to interact negatively with drugs used to treat blood pressure. It has the potential to interfere with the metabolism of the medication that is taken to lower blood pressure.
Clopidogrel, a blood thinner, has its efficacy diminished when used with modafinil. It’s possible that this will raise your risk of having a heart attack or stroke.