Chronic sleep disorders such as narcolepsy can have a substantial impact on one’s day-to-day activities. Individuals who are affected by this medical ailment frequently find themselves falling asleep at inappropriate times during the day. People who are affected by this condition consistently struggle to remain awake for extended periods, regardless of the circumstances.
Although there is currently no cure for narcolepsy, many people who have it can lead normal, healthy lives. Many people who have narcolepsy can find ways to control their symptoms and live happy, fulfilling lives despite the challenges that the condition might provide.
The effects of excessive sleepiness can be treated with the assistance of medicine in addition to adjustments in lifestyle, such as getting enough amounts of sleep and regularly engaging in physical activity. Managing the symptoms of excessive sleepiness can be accomplished. In most cases, a doctor will recommend medication such as cognitive enhancers, antidepressants, stimulants, SSRIs, or SNRIs to alleviate the symptoms of narcolepsy.
Modafinil and armodafinil are two wakefulness-promoting medicines that have only recently been introduced as potential treatments for narcolepsy. They assist the patients in maintaining their alert state and enhancing their wakefulness.
Understanding the Basics of Modafinil and Armadofinil
Both the drugs are classified as wakefulness-promoting drugs that exhibit effects similar to those of stimulants. The R-isomer of racemic modafinil is referred to as armodafinil. That is to say, their chemical structures are identical, but the way those structures are arranged in their bodies is slightly different. Both are considered to be Schedule IV substances because of their low risk for addiction and abuse and are only available with a doctor’s prescription.
There is a lack of understanding regarding the precise mechanisms by which armodafinil and modafinil exert their effects. It is thought that these drugs have an effect on neurons in the brain that are responsible for encouraging sleep. Dopamine levels in the areas of the brain that regulate sleep and wakefulness are thought by scientists to be increased as a result of the use of these drugs. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that occurs naturally in the brain and is found in the central nervous system. It plays an important role in the sleep-wake cycle. It is possible that an increase in dopamine levels brought on by treatment with these drugs will bring about an improvement in wakefulness.
Comparisons Made Between Modafinil and Armodafinil
The pharmacological mechanisms of action, the half-lives, and the efficacy of the drugs in treating the diseases for which they are prescribed are identical. Both drugs have been demonstrated to have the same effect on a person’s appetite, as well as an improvement in cognitive function, focus, and overall productivity.
Both of these substances are considered to be stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS), and they work in very similar ways. They stimulate only some parts of the brain as opposed to actively activating the entire brain. Both armodafinil and modafinil work to limit the reuptake of dopamine in the brain by attaching themselves to the dopamine transporter and increasing dopamine levels in specific brain areas. Modafinil’s effects are unaffected by dopamine synthesis inhibitors or antagonists, despite popular belief to the contrary.
Despite having identical half-lives, the plasma concentrations (late in the day) after Armodafinil treatment are higher than those after Modafinil administration. This is the case when comparing milligram for milligram. Armodafinil has a unique pharmacokinetic profile in comparison to modafinil, which may help those who have ES maintain a higher level of alertness throughout the day.
Modafinil is a racemic combination that is created by combining two different chemicals. Both R-(-)- and S-(+)-modafinil are considered to be “enantiomers” of modafinil. Despite the fact that the molecules contain the same atoms and have a structure that is comparable in three dimensions, they are not exact copies or mirror images of one another.
Modafinil has equal amounts of both of its enantiomers. In contrast, the “R” enantiomer is what constitutes the entirety of the chemical that is known as modafinil. Because of this property, the compound is said to have “enantiopure” characteristics.
It was discovered that both drugs have distinct pharmacokinetic qualities that set them apart from one another. In addition, the dosages of modafinil and armodafinil that are most effective for different people are different from one another.
Conditions that Modafinil and Armodafinil can be used to treat
Both modafinil and armodafinil have received U.S. approval. the following ailments are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment:
Narcolepsy (excessive sleepiness)
Regardless of the situation, this chronic sleep disorder is characterised by overpowering and excessive daytime sleepiness as well as abrupt attacks of sleepiness.
Disorder of shiftwork sleep (SWSD)
This is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (day-night cycle). People who work the night shift and are awake throughout the day are affected. Excessive drowsiness, insomnia (a problem falling or staying asleep), or both may be symptoms.
Obstructive snoring (OSA)
This respiratory disorder, which affects people while they sleep, causes them to breathe in and out continuously.
Narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea is three sleep disorders that are all characterised by excessive sleepiness and feeling exhausted. When used together, armodafinil and modafinil help those who battle excessive daytime drowsiness and exhaustion stay awake.
In addition to the aforementioned, armodafinil and modafinil are used off-label for the treatment of depression, cancer-related fatigue, exhaustion brought on by multiple sclerosis, and fatigue in patients with illnesses including ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder).
Potency of Modafinil and Armodafinil :
Both drugs are FDA-approved and work similarly to promote wakefulness. The pharmacodynamic effects of armodafinil and modafinil, however, are a significant distinction. Armodafinil is thought to have a longer half-life. In other words, pharmacokinetic research indicates that it persists in the body longer.
Studies contrasting armodafinil and modafinil have also revealed that a single dose of 150 mg of armodafinil had effects similar to a single dose of 200 mg of modafinil. As a result, when comparing medications milligramme for milligramme, armodafinil can be the more potent drug. In other words, addressing daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep problems may be more successful with armodafinil administration than with modafinil administration.
There are presently no studies comparing the efficacy of modafinil and armodafinil that can categorically state one medicine is superior to the other. Both medications considerably reduce irregular sleep patterns and excessive drowsiness (the amount of time taken to fall asleep). Both drugs are well tolerated by people with narcolepsy, shift work disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea.